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Introducing cDoc: Continuous Documentation
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Doc in Git™
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Doc in Git™

For using continuous documentation effectively you have to store your documentation in git. In this blog post we will compare the documentation workflow used when storing documentaiton in Notion/Confluence/Google Docs vs the workflow when using Git.

Requirement Document Workflow

A typical way many product teams work is by creating requirement documents. Depending on companies, there may be one ore more requirement documents, they may have PRFAQ, A “One Pager”, Business Requirement Document (BRD), Product Requirement Document (PRD), Engineering Requirement Document (ERD), “Shaped Up Document” and so on.

For each logical feature, requirement, ticket, whatever goes for development, there is a set of such documents. For a feature, there is set of requirement document, lets call them requirement document as a whole.

Teams typically store these documents in Notion, Confluence, Google Docs and so on. They create a new requirement document for the feature or the product change / enhancement under consideration. This requirement document goes through some sort of review, approval, consensus building process, and once finalied and approved the requirement goes to engineering team for implementation.

Engineering team then further enhances the requirement documents, with engineering considerations and those also go through a review / consensus process.

In the end we have somehting that goes for engineering development. This describes the feature at high level. Includes wireframes or design mock of UI being created or updated. It will include the workflow, what happens when someone interacts with the UI, what notifications are triggered, what validations are performed. In some teams engineering decisions would also be included, what APIs to create or update, what database tables we are going to create or update, if a new microservice is going to be created, if the deployement instructions for the microservice is going to change. It might even include what kind of analytics reports are to be created, how to monitor the services if new services are created.

All in all this single or set of document can get really comprehensive for teams who take documentation seriously.

Problem With This Approach: Series Of Diffs

So if a team is consistently creating comprehensive documentation following all the good practices, what is goes wrong?

To understand the problem, you should look at the requirement document as a “diff” or a “patch” on your product. You have an existing version of live product, you create and give the diff to your engineering team, and they “apply” it and you have a new version of the product.

So far so good, now what happens to those requirement documents once the feature is live? Can someone go through those documents after 6 months, and understand your current product? Of course not, you did not go through this “diff”/“apply” phase just once, you must have a lot of similar cycles play out.

Imagine if the goal of the documentation was for someone to understand how your product works. Of course, one can understand how the product works by going through the product. But that’s tedious. There are too many roles and journeys and edge cases. Product is the most accurate documentation of the product, followed closely by the source code. But if your goal is to understand how your product works, going through the live product or source code is really ineffecient, time consuming, and prone to human errors. There may be strong invariants and philosophies of your products that people may not deduce from just reading the code or interacting the product.

Everyone tells you documentation is important, not just because it is important while a feature is being developed, but also because of the hope that after the feature is developed and someone new joins, or you have forgotten how precisely the feature works after a few months, you do not have to waste time reverse engineering your product or code to understand how feature works, that you do not have bring everyone who implemented the feature in same room and have a zoom call to rely on their memory of how things are, which is both error prone, and time consuming, and primary reason teams get stuck, too many meetings!

There are other problems with documentation when following this workflow. In many cases the documentation would talk about both things that may happen in long run, and things that have been identified as minimal items to be implemented. The demarcation of what is long term vision vs what is to go for immediate development may not be obvious from reading the documentation. Sure someone may have created a section for whats really to go live, what can wait, but it may be inaccurate. Further, even after things go for development, and the release is getting delayed the cut down scope is often again cut down. And often this second cut down scope would only be communicated in war rooms and Jira tickets, and the original document would not be updated. Some could do it with utmost care, sure, but history teaches us humans are prone to error despite best intentions.

So let’s empathise with the poor chap or chappie for a moment, they have to go through the documentaiton to understand how things are, they have to mentally “merge” all the “released” requirement documents, somehow keep track of what of this is released and what is still planned, or was planned but we have changed out mind about it. No wonder people feel like reaching out to others on zoom calls instead of going through this process, it’s just not humanly possible to get accurate picture based on documentation following this workflow.

A document that is 10% in-accurate without knowing which 10% is almost useless because the reader has to suspect every bit, double check everything, will end up having very low confidence to whatever they deduced based on their reading, and will feel like talking to others, or trying things out. And if that is the alternative, why bother with documentation?

And this is what so many teams do today. They will put the documentation of the feature in a Jira ticket! No one goes through Jira tickets that are closed, unless investigating some major issue, not to understand how your system works. People are often just resigned to “documentation is useless”, or “what’s the point of writing documentation, no one reads them any way!” etc.

How Git Based Workflow Works And How It Solves This Problem

When a developer joins a team, and has to go through the code base, they do not go through past PRs. They may, for getting clarity on some points, after all code is not “self documenting” as much as we like them to be. But still, the code went through the exact same process, there was a whole, the main branch, and then there were a series of diffs, each Pull Request, and once a Pull Request is merged, the main is updated, and everyone just keeps track of the main, and only looks at PR for some clarifications.

This is in stark contrast with the documentation workflow with Notion/Confluence described above, they do not have a concept of a “pull request”, so instead of modifying existing documents but in an isolated space (a branch), a new document is created.

What is clearly a pull request and main, is merged into a single entity, document, in those systems.

How Product Requirement Would Work If Stored In Git

If we agree that creating a new document, instead of updating existing documents, and no, we can not just update existing ones, we have to create like an isolated copy of existing ones, and modify them, and keep it such that anyone can enter that isolated space and see all the documents that have been modified, and have some sort of “merge” mechanism that changes in that isolated space gets merged with the “upstream”, common space, where everyone is looking at, that this is ineed a superior workflow, then we can quickly realise this is Git, and we should put our documentation in Git instead of in Notion/Confluence/Google Docs etc.

For this to work you should follow some sort of documentation framework, some way to organise your documentation because this is going to be the common space where everyone will be referring to, it should be written with mutliple readers in mind, be well organised. You can start with something simple, and depending on the complexity of your product you can go for a more elaborate system. We at FifthTry maintain a documentation framework that you can borrow from.

You should pick some sort of static site generator, there are more than 300 available just in Open Source world, we at FifthTry also has our own static site generator, pick one of them, pick the documentation framework, and document the current state of the product.

Incremental Documentation

One might read this advice and feel overwhelmed, how can someone document their entire product in one go? Haven’t you been in business for years, isn’t there an enormous amount of work to be documented? Who will do it? This will surely fail, what are you talking about?

This is where continuous documentation comes in. The idea is to pick the documentation framework, and your static site generator, set things up, write some minimal skeletal document, document one or two pages, one or two communications, one or two microservices etc, and then call it a day. You do not have to document the whole thing in one go.

Once continuous documentation is in place, for every new PR, every new code change, just go ahead and document the current behaviour that the code is trying to modify, and put merge this it in your main branch. And then create a PR which modifies the newly added current behaviour and makes it how it should be after the feature is implemented.

By following this incremental documentation approach, and adopting continuous documentation, you will slowly get your documentation get more comprehensive.

With traditional approaches, documentation starts out right, comprehensive but rots with time. With the approach described here your documentation will start out light, and with time it will grow more accurate and comprehensive.

And there you go! You have on your hands a documentation nirvana playbook.